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CONTENTS: (a) Terms used in Animal Improvement

Sub-Topic: Terms used in Animal Improvement  (Genetic terms)

  1. Breed: It is a population of animals with the same gene composition exhibiting the same characters or traits
  2. Characters/Traits: These are heritable attributes which the animal breeders select e g color, size, animal height etc.
  3. Chromosomes: It is a structural unit of the nucleus which carries the gene in a linear order
  4. Chromatin: It is one of the two thread-like structures formed by the longitudinal division of chromosomes during meiotic division
  5. Genes: they are hereditary units of inheritance responsible for the transmission of traits from parent to the offspring
  6. Gamete: It is a matured sex cell which takes part in sexual reproduction and is usually in haploid condition. Gametes are of two types: male gamete or spermatozoa in animals.
  7. Zygote: It is a single cell formed as a result of union of male and female gametes. It is usually diploid.
  8. Phenotype: They are physically and physiologically expressed characters/ traits of an individual eg height and colour
  9. Genotype: It is the genetic make-up or constitution of an individual. This involves both dominant and recessive characters
  10. Dominant character: It is a character shown in an individual without any significant influence of contrasting characters present in the same individual e g  Tt, Dd, Rr

Sub-Topic 2 :

  1. Recessive character: It is the unexpressed character in the presence of a dominant character e g Tt. Dd. Rr
  2. Allelomorphs: they are pairs of genes on the same position of chromosomes that control contrasting characters. A pair of allelomorphs is called allelic pair while each member of the pair is allele
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