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SUBJECT: ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

TOPIC: Animal Health: Diseases

CONTENT:

(a) Meaning of Diseases

(b) Types of diseases

(c) common terminologies in farm animal diseases

Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of Diseases

Animal Health management deals with monitoring the health status of the animals on the farm. It is apparent that a healthy animal will be productive while unhealthy animal apart from not been productive becomes a liability as money would be spent for their treatment. Besides, there is a high risk of transferring the infections to other animals.

A Disease condition is a deviation from normal functioning state of the animal’s body which comprises of different components working in unity.

In a nutshell, disease is any condition in which there is departure from the normal functioning of the system of the animal’s body.

Types of Diseases

  1. Infectious Diseases (Pathogenic Diseases)
  2. Non-Infectious Diseases (Non-pathogenic)

Infectious Diseases (Pathogenic Diseases)

These are diseases caused by organisms that are referred to as germs or pathogenic organism. These organisms are usually small in nature but possess the ability to multiply rapidly. Common diseases causing organisms are Viruses, Bacteria, Fungus, Protozoan, Parasites which can be external e.g lice, ticks or internal such as round worms and tapeworms

Bacteria:

They cause diseases by secretion of toxins. Diseases are infectious and contagious. They are transmitted by air, water and animals inform of spores. Examples of bacteria diseases are Contagious abortion, Anthrax, Foot rot, Mastitis, T.B, Fowl pox, Cow pox etc

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Virus:

This organism multiplies only inside the living cells of a specific host. Viruses are transmitted from animal to animal by vectors or by discharge from the body of animals, by insect bites and by human beings. Examples of viral diseases are Foot and mouth disease, Rinder pest, Newcastle, Gumboro, Rabies, Fowl pox, Pneumonia, Kata, Blue tongue, Dermatitis etc

Fungi:

These are non-green plants that can survive without light. Their growth and multiplication are favored by dam, moist and dark condition. They spread through body contact and through spore formation. Examples of fungal diseases include Aspergilosis, Ring worm, Foot rot, Scaby etc

Protozoa:

They are microscopic single cell animals that cause a lot of damage to livestock by rupturing certain parts of the body when they multiply. They are transmitted by insects, vectors, other animals like rats and through

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