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Sub topic 1

Rations – meaning and types

Definition of ration:

Ration is the total amount of feed which is provided to an animal over a 24 hour period. It is the amount of feed taken an animal per day.

Diet: This is the quantity of feed consumed by an animal at a meal or period.

A balanced ration can be defined as feed containing all essential nutrients in the right quantity and adequate proportions for feeding animals.

Balanced ration is provided for the following reasons:

  1. Maintenance of bodys tissus
  2. Supply of Energy
  3. Development of unborn fœtus
  4. To build up body reserves
  5. Provision of essential nutrients for growth.
  6. Lactation
  7. Egg production.

Types of Ration: Ration can be classified into:

  1. Maintenance ration
  2. Production ration.

Maintenance ration:

This a ration containing only sufficient that enables the animals to carry out normal life processes such as respiration, heartbeat, body movement and maintenance of good health without an increase or loss in weight.

Production ration:

This is the ration given to farm animals which enable them to produce. It is a ration that supplies animals with nutrients in excess of those needed for maintenance

Sub topic 2

Production ration includes:


This is given to nursing mothers from the time of parturition to the time the young ones are weaned. It is very rich in protein.

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This is a special type of ration given to very young animals that have just been weaned. It is high in protein and ingredients that easily digest. Young animals are highly prone to emaciation, disease attack or death at weaning. Click on the link below to download the file containing complete information.

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