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These are channels or media used to pass on messages to and from the farmers and the

research institute or universities. Agricultural extension methods can be categorized according

to the number of people reached as follows;

Individual Contact method:  This involves direct, person-to-person contact between the farmer and the extension workers. The method may involve house or farm visitation, telephone calls, letters or e-mail, and result demonstration.


(a)        It helps in giving first hand information or knowledge of the farmer

(b)        It helps to develop goodwill and confidence between the farmer and extension agent

(c)        It gives opportunity of asking questions

(d)        It is very effective and efficient


(a)        It can be used for only few farmers

(b)        It is time consuming and risky

(c)        There may be suspicion if other farmers are not visited, leading to erosion of extension agent credibility.

Group Method: This involves gathering a number of farmers into convenient places (halls, farms) to deliver services or message that are general to all participants. The method often used include method demonstration, result demonstration, general meeting, lectures, group discussion, workshops, field trips or excursion, agricultural shows and field days.


(a)  Many people are attended to at the same time

(b)  It is more effective

(c)  It influences reluctant farmers to adopt innovations

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(d)  It directs attention on group problems and possible solutions

(e)  It encourages and trains local leaders

(f)  It encourages free exchange of information and knowledge

(g)  It saves time compared with individual method


(a)  Problems discussed may not be relevant at all

(b)  Instructions given to farmers still need to be followed up

Mass Media:  This involves the use of mass media channels to reach large audience or farmers with extension messages at the same time.  The messages must be general so as to be of interest to all. Such methods as radios, televisions, magazine, newspapers, mobile cinemas, journals, E-mails, bulletins, posters, face book, billboard, fliers (handbills),etc are used to convey information to farmers.


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