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In male birds, the two testes are located inside the body. A narrow tube connects them to the cloaca in which the tube ends as a small raised papilla.

Sub-topic 1


The female reproductive tract in hen consists of the following: ovary, infundibulum, oviduct, magnum, isthmus, shell gland, vagina, and the cloaca.

Ovary: Hen has only one ovary- the right degenerate very early in life at about 7-9 days of incubation leaving only the left one. The ovary when stimulated by a hormone secretes egg or ova.

Infundibulum:  After the ovum has been formed, it moves into the fallopian funnel from where it stays before heading into the oviduct. Sperms remain here for about twenty-one days.

Oviduct: This is the region of the tract where fertilization occurs. The process of fertilization must be very fast because whether fertilized or not the egg will move down into magnum

Magnum: The egg stays here for about three hours. This is where the albumen (egg white) is deposited on the egg. The albumen helps in providing food and protection to the embryo.

Isthmus: The egg stays here for about one-quarter hour (11/4). This is the place where two lighter shell membranes are deposited on the egg. This is where the shape of the egg is formed.

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Uterus or shell gland: The egg stays its longest time here. It remains for about eighteen to twenty-one hours (18-21 hours). This is the place where all the remaining parts of the egg are formed. The shell gland is rich in calcium carbonate (CaCo3) or limestone. The colour of the shell and the hard outer shell are formed here.

Splincter muscle:

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