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  1. Classification of mammals based on their diet
  2. Feeding Habits: Categories and mechanisms.
  3. Modifications in the feeding habits of
      • (i)  Filter feeders
      • (ii) Fluid feeders
      • (iii) Insects feeders
      • (iv) Parasitic and saprophytic feeders
      • (v) Feeding in protozoa, hydra and mammals.


  1. Herbivores
  2. Carnivores and
  • Omnivores


These refer to all the animals that are plant-eating. Examples include grasshoppers, goat, cow, Grass cutter etc. They all feed on low vegetation such as grass. Giraffes and elephants feed on taller plants or shrubs. Herbivores such as rabbits and guinea pigs use very sharp incisors to cut shoots or browse, feed on roots and bark. Other animals like antelopes, cows and goats pull up grass using the lower front teeth and pad on the front of the upper jaw. The pad is called Diastema. Some herbivores such as elephant use a specialised organ (the trunk) to pull leaves, bark and branches off trees


These are animals that feed majorly on flesh or bones and other animals. They are referred to as the primary consumers. Some examples are fishes which eat aquatic insects and other fishes, toads and reptiles (Snakes, lizards, wall gecko), cats, dogs, and lions. Mammalian carnivores are characterized by well-developed dentition, large canines and a pair of carnassial teeth. These are adapted to stabbing their prey, cutting and crushing meet and bones.

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Omnivorous animals are animals that feed on both plants and animals, cooked and uncooked food. Some of examples include, man, wild boar, bush and domestic pig, and domestic fowl.

Scavengers are animals that feed on the remains of dead animals are called scavengers e.g. Vultures.


Write short note on each of the following; Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores and Scavengers

Caterpillar Hunter Beetle

A European caterpillar hunter beetle makes a meal out of an unlucky caterpillar. The caterpillar hunter stalks its prey at night and survives mostly on caterpillars and earthworms.


There are various modification among the alimentary systems of some animals so far considered, suggest that the parts are modified according to the type of food they eat. It has also been discovered that there is a close relationship between feeding mechanism and the diet of each organism.

Based on the modification on the feeding habits of organisms, we have the following;

  1. Filter feeding, and
  2. Fluid feeding adaptations in animals
  3. Saprophytic
  4. Parasitic feeding in animals and plants.

 Filter Feeders

Some aquatic organism feed on some tiny microscopic organisms (planktons) in their habitat. A great number of them are gathered, filtered and consumed at the same time, from the surface of the water. Typical examples of filter feeders include; water fleas, (Daphnia), mosquito larvae, fish such as herring, and molluscs such as oyster, and mussels. Water containing suspended plankton enters the mouth of the animal e.g. herring. Water passes between the gill rakers to the gills. Oysters and clams draw water into their shells and trap food particles on the muscles covering their gills.

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Fluid Feeders

Fluid feeders are organisms that can only feed on soluble or fluid food materials from the body fluid of other animals or plants, or convert solid food into a liquid form before ingesting it. Examples of fluid feeders are bees, wasps, aphids, housefly, mosquito, tsetse fly, and butter fly. The house fly has a proboscis which is flattened its anterior end. This consists of numerous food channels called pseudo- tracheae. Whenever the fly is prepared to feed, it extends its proboscis and saliva is passed down salivary duct via the pseudo tracheae on to the food.

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