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TOPIC: Animal Improvement

  CONTENTS: Methods of farm animal Improvement

(a) Introduction: Advantages and Disadvantages of introduction

(b) Selection: Advantages and Disadvantages of selection


  1. Introduction
  2. Selection
  3. Breeding


This is bringing animals which are not native of a place but are known to have certain desirable characters into a new place from the place of origin. Such animals are called exotic. Introduction can be by physical importation either of the animals themselves or their semen.

Advantages of Introduction

  1. It enhances greater productivity
  2. It enhances conscious breeding against pests and diseases
  3. Breeds may perform better and be able to adapt to local conditions
  4. it brings about improvement in indigenous animals

Disadvantages of Introduction

  1. It may introduce new diseases and pests to the area
  2. There may be problems of adaptation
  3. The animals may not perform as expected
  4. Animals may be susceptible to local diseases and pests
  5. Quarantine procedures can cause shock to animals.

Sub-Topic 2 :


This is the method whereby a preferred animal is chosen from the population for breeding based on physical features such as growth rate, color, size, resistance to disease and pest, fertility rate, milk quantity and quality etc

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(I) Natural selection

(ii) Artificial selection

NATURAL SELECTION: It operates on the basis of choosing individuals which are able to withstand unfavorable environmental forces.

ARTIFICIAL SELECTION: It involves man’s ability to discern by observing differences in the animals available and to pick the desirable ones.

Types of Artificial selection

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