The content is just an excerpt from the complete note for SS 2 Second Term Agricultural Science Lesson NoteDiseases of Major Crops: Important Diseases of Major Crops are Explained. Check below to download the complete PDF

 DISEASES OF MAJOR CROPS: Important diseases of major crops are explained in tabular form below.

S/N Name of disease Causal organism Mode of transmission Symptoms of disease Prevention/control
           CEREALS
1 Maize smut Fungus (Ustilago maydis) Through affected seeds

Spore on leaves

Grains with mass of black spores Plant healthy seeds, treat seeds with fungicides e.g. thiram, carboxin etc.
2 Maize rust Fungus (Puccinia polysora) Wind or insect deposit spores on leaves Brown spot on leaves Use resistant varieties, use fungicides
           
3 Rice blast Fungus (Pyricularia oryzea) Airborne, spores deposit on leave. Grains do not fill, dead areas on leaves which may lead to death, low yield Use resistant varieties, dress seeds with Bordeaux mixture
4. Rice leave spot Fungus (Cercospora oryzae) Wind or rain splash Reddish brown on leaves Use resistant variety, burn crop residues
5 Maize streak virus By piercing and sucking insects like leaf hoppers Chlorosis on leaves, shortened internodes Plant early, use resistant varieties and burn affected plants
          LEGUMES
6 Fusarium wilt Fungus (Fusarium solani) Air Rottening of roots, yellowing of leaves and wilting of plants Use resistant varieties, plant clean seeds
7 Cowpea leaf spot Bacetrium (Xanthoomonas phaseoli) Infected seeds, wind and rain drops. Angular leaf spot, stem and pod lesions Use resistant varieties, plant clean seeds
8 Root knot Nematodes Infected soil and tools Galls or knots on roots few fruits. Plant resistant varieties, practice crop rotation
9 Groundnut rosette Virus Through aphids Mottling of young leaflets and chlorosis, leaf distortion with marging rolling inward, green patches on leaves, reduced flowers formation Early planting, use resistant varieties, crop rotation, destroy insect vectors, regular weeding
     ROOTS AND TUBERS
10 Cassava mosaic Virus Through white flies, infected cuttings Yellowish and mottling of leaves.

Leaf distortion, reduced photosynthetic activities

Use resistant varieties, spray insecticides, burn infected plants

The table consist of diseases of root and tuber (contd.), fruit, vegetable, spice, fibre etc. Click on the download button to have a complete file.

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