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Organisms in their habitats are affected by many factors. Factors are the things or conditions that influence their livelihood. These factors are called Biotic and Abiotic factors. Biotic factors are the living factors of the habitat such as the living things found in that habitat while the Abiotic factors are the non-living factors in the habitat such as oxygen, temperature, dissolved salt, water, sunlight etc. the biotic factors are classified as producers, consumers and decomposers.

Population: population is defined as a group of organisms of the same kind living in a given habitat at a given time.

Population size: Is the actual number of organisms in a habitat.

Population density: this is the measure of the size of the population per unit area of the habitat.

Population density= total size of the population/area of the habitat per square meter.

Symbiosis: this is a relationship between two organisms sharing equal benefits with each other. E.g the relationship between Egret feeding on the ticks on the skin of cattle while the cattle gets relieved from the stings of the ticks.

Commensalism: this is the relationship between two organisms whereby one organism benefits and the other organism neither loss nor gain. E. g birds living on trees.

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Parasitism: this Is the relationship between two organisms whereby one (Parasite) benefits while the other (Host) suffers. E.g tape worm in the gut of man. Etc

Saprophytism: this is the association by which an organism (saprophyte) feeds on dead plants and animals. E.g mushroom, etc.

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