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CONTENT:  Ecto-parasite

  1. Life cycle of Mites
  2. Life cycle of flies



They are unsegmented pests with eight walking legs. They infest animals, plants and stored food. They cause skin diseases like Mange and scab in animals and scabies in man. The life cycle involves eggs (laid on skin), nymph (moult twice) and adult. All the stages take place within three weeks. The red mite causes heavy loss in poultry.

Effects/Economic importance of Mites

  1. Severe anemia
  2. Restlessness (especially at night)
  3. Unconsciousness (loss of condition)
  4. Drop in egg production
  5. Transmission of disease like fowl pox

Control of Lice Mites

  1. Avoid overcrowding
  2. Spray the animals with insecticide regularly



Flies have three body divisions

  1. The Head
  2. The Thorax
  3. The abdomen with three pairs of legs

Some of them have forward pointing proboscis which can be used for piercing of skin and sucking of blood. Some lay eggs which hatch from larva to pupa while some lay living larva. Many of these insects (flies) are harmful to farm animals eg

  1. Tsetse fly & horse fly transmit Trypanosomiasis
  2. Stable fly transmits Anthrax
  3. White fly transmit Mosaic disease in plants
  4. Black fly transmit filarial
  5. Warble fly produces larva that damages cattle skin
  6. Nasal fly produces larva that damages sheep skin
  7. House fly cause irritation and restlessness
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Control of flies

  1. Spraying and dipping
  2. Destroy habitat of flies
  3. Provide hygienic environment

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