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TOPIC: Animal Improvement (contd)


  • Methods of farm animal Improvement
  • Breeding: types of breeding or methods of breeding
  • Mendelian laws of inheritance



Heritable qualities are transferred from parents to their offspring during breeding. This is done through conventional (traditional) and modern breeding techniques

This is bringing animals which are not native of a place but are known to have certain desirable characters into a new place from the place of origin. Such animals are called exotic. Introduction can be by physical importation either of the animals themselves or their semen.

Types of Breeding

(a) Inbreeding: This involves mating of more closely related animals eg mating of brothers and sisters, sire and daughter, son and dam etc. Inbreeding produces offspring with undesirable characteristics, inbred lines that can be used for cross breeding and also leads to inbreeding depression.

Advantages of Inbreeding

  1. It makes it possible for the development of pure- breed
  2. It helps to eliminate undesirable genes
  3. it can fix a particular trait or character within a breed

Disadvantages of Inbreeding

  1. It reduces hybrid vigour
  2. It can lead to fertility problems among the offspring after a long period
  3. A particular disease can be passed down from generation to generation
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(b) Line Breeding: it is the mating of individuals that are not more closely related than half brothers and sisters or mating between cousins. Line breeding is used to consolidate some traits of the sire or dam. It helps breeders to develop pure individuals without having much loss.

(c) Cross Breeding: it is the mating of proving quality animals of different breeds eg N’dama x Muturu; Land race x Large white or Rhode Island Red (female) x White leghorn (male). Cross breeding gives increased vigor, higher production capacity, greater growth rate, ability to withstand variations in the environment and resistance to disease in the offspring

Advantages of cross-breeding

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