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TOPIC: TYPES, COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL
- Types of soil
- Soil composition (chemical and biological composition)
- Soil pH
- Soil properties- physical properties of soil (texture, structure).
SUB TOPIC: Soil types or Types of soil
Soil is the loose weathered material covering the earth surface which supports the growth
Of plants and sustains human and animal life.
Soil consists of mineral materials e.g sand, clay, silt and gravel, organic materials which are made of plants and animals, H2O (water), air and microbes.
Types of Soil
There are three types of soil formed as a result of the breakdown of rocks that is weathering. They are as follows:
- Clay Soil: this is a type of soil that has clay constituting the major proportion about 40% and above while the other part contains silt and sand. Types of crops that can grow on clay soil: rice, sugarcane, etc. It possesses the following characteristics.
PROPERTIES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF CLAY SOIL
- The relative range in diameter is 0.002mm
- It is fine grained
- It is plastic in nature
- It is sticky when wet
- It has tiny pore spaces
- It is poorly drained and aerated
WAYS OR METHODS OF IMPROVING CLAY SOIL:
- Addition of organic manure
- Addition of lime to reduce the acidity in the soil
- Proper and adequate drainage
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CLAY SOIL
- It is use for pottery and crafts making
- Building houses
- Construction works
- Rearing fish
SANDY SOIL: These are loose soils which consist of coarse grain particles. It is a type of soil which sand particles are much more than the other soil particles (about 85%) and others 15%. Types of crops that can grow on sandy soil: cowpea, soyabean, groundnut etc.
CHARACTERISTIC OR PROPERTIES OF SANDY SOIL
- The soil particles are large, coarse, grained and gritty when touched.
- It is well aerated with loose, large pores or air spaces.
- It possesses low water holding capacity
METHODS OF IMPROVING SANDY SOIL
- By mulching
- Planting cover crops
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SANDY SOIL
- Sandy Soil: Is very important in building construction when mixed cement for block moulding, plastering and concreting.
- Varieties of crops such as cowpea, cotton groundnut, cassava, can be cultivated on it.
Loamy Soil: This is a mixture of sand and clay particles with a higher proportion of organic matter (humus). It is a combination of both silt and clay without any one dominating the other. This makes the soil to have features of both silt and clay, the color varies from brown to black. It is also known as an artificial soil. Types of crops that can grow on loamy soil: best for all crops
Properties or Characteristics of Loamy Soil
- It is an all-round soil
- It is rich in plant nutrients.
- It has the drainage of sand and loose particles.
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