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  • Climate factors
  • Biotic factors
  • Edaphic factors

Agricultural activities such as crop and livestock production are affected by several environmental factors.

These environmental factors determine and influence the distribution of crops and livestock as well as the performance and productivity of crops and livestock.

SUBTOPIC: CLIMATIC FACTORS                                                                                       

Climate can be defined as the average weather condition of a place measured over a long period of time (over 35yrs). Elements of climate include temperature, sunlight, wind, rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, radiant energy and cloud cover.

  • Temperature: this is the degree of hotness or coldness of a place at a given time. The effects on plants and animals include;
    • It is essential for germination
    • It is essential for growth of plants.


  • Sunlight is necessary for germination and maturity of seeds.
  • It is the major source of energy for all living things.
  • Sunlight affects the length of day; this is referred to as Classification of crops base on day length includes:
  • Long-day plants which require longer day light. For example, most cereal like millet, sorghum, etc., spinach.
  • Short-day plants which [Download file to gain full access…]

Sunlight is equally essential for the performance and production of poultry. It affects evapo-transpiration. Absence of light lead to etiolation in which the plants leave becomes pale and the stem elongated.

  • Wind: Wind refers to air in motion and account for the different seasons in the tropic.
  • It helps in the ripening of some fruits like cotton.
  • Rainfall: this is defined as the released of excess condensed water vapour in the atmosphere in to the earth, it has the highest effect on agricultural production in Nigeria.
  • Rainfall supplies drinking water for animals especially in the desert areas.
  • It determines the distribution and types of crops and animals that can be found in an area.
  • Relative Humidity: This refers to the amount of moisture in the atmosphere.
  • Relative humidity results in the formation of rain.
  • High relative humidity can reduce temperature leading to coldness, and reduces evapo-transpiration.
  • Cloud Cover:
  • This influences temperature.
  • It can determine rainfall of a place.


These are living organism that affects agricultural production. They include predators, parasite, soil organism (macro and micro-organisms) pest, disease pathogens and weeds.

  • Predators: These are organisms that feed on another organism. Predators may include lizard, toad, hawk, tiger and lion while prey includes goat, chicks, and insects.
  • Some of them cause a great loss in livestock industry.
  • Some predators are used to control some pests of crops and animals.
  • Parasites: A parasite is an organism that live in or on another organism called host.
  • It derives nourishment from the host while the host is injured during the association.
  • It transmits certain diseases to the host e.g., babesiosis which is transmitted by tick
  • Soil Organisms: these are living organism inhabiting the soil. They include microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses and macro-organisms such as earth worms, rodents, cricket, millipedes, termites and snails etc.

Some of them cause

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