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Mineral and natural resources which occurs in the earth’s crust. They are grouped into three part which are:

  • Mineral fuel: such as petroleum, coal and natural gas
  • Ferrous and non – ferrous metals which include iron, copper, tin, lead etc.
  • Other industrial metals such as gold, mercury, silver, diamond etc.


  1. PETROLEUM: Petroleum or crude oil is the greatest income yielding mineral in Nigeria. Petroleum and natural gas was first discovered in Nigeria. Petroleum and natural gas was first discovered in Nigeria as far as 1956 by some companies like shell and mobile exploration Nigeria incorporated the first large deposits of Nigerian.

Petroleum and natural gas were discovered at olobrii in Rivers state where petroleum is found include Rivers, Ondo, Delta, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Imo, Cross Rivers states. These states are called Niger Delta.

Natural gas is found alongside petroleum and it is used primarily for power and energy generation and for domestic and industrial uses.

Petrol from petroleum is used as fuel for vehicles while natural gas is for cooking.

  1. COAL: Coal is a hard mineral substance that supplies heat from which coal gas is made. Coal is formed out of decomposed plants matter. Coal is mined at ildi near Enugu, Kabba in Kogi state. It is used to generate power in industries. Coal was first consumed locally by the Nigeria railway corporation.
  2. FERROUS AND NON – FERROUS METALS: These include iron, copper, tin, lead, zinc and limestone.

Iron: Iron as found in Lokaja and Enugu. Iron is very important is Nigeria because it serves the iron and steel industries. Iron are used for the production of iron rods, cutlasses, axes and different sizes of rods for construction of houses and bridges. The major iron and special industries in Nigeria are located at Abeokuta, in Kogi state and Alaga in Delta state.

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