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CONTENT: Classification of crops based on crop plant forms

(aii) Monocotyledonous e.g maize,  guinea corn.

Dicotyledonous e.g beans, melon.

Sub Topic 1:  Classification of crops based on crop plant forms

A crop is any plant that have useful purpose or economic value.

Crop plants are grouped into two forms based on the structure of their seeds or the number of seed leaf it contains. Seed leaf is otherwise known as cotyledon.

Food for germinating seed is stored in the cotyledon.

Monocotyledons plants

These are plants with one seed leaf or cotyledons e.g. oil palm, coconut, banana, plantain, pineapple, date-palm, garlic, sugar-cane, cereals e.g wheat, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, rye, barley, oats and all grasses e.g guinea grass, carpet grass etc.

Characteristics of monocotyledons plants

  1. They have single erect stem without branches.
  2. They have fibrous roots.
  3. The stem have scattered vascular bundles.

Dicotyledonous plants

These are plants with two seed leaves or cotyledons. They include most trees e.g. kola, cocoa, cashew, orange, mango, guava, pawpaw, silk cotton, Iroko, most vegetables e.g tomato, okro, melon, pepper, roots and tubers e.g cassava, sweet potato, yam etc and legumes such as soya-beans, cowpea, groundnuts, pigeon pea, etc.

Characteristics of dicotyledons plants

  1. Germination of seed is epigeal i.e the cotyledon is raised above the soil surface.
  2. Flowers are usually colourful, attractive and scented.
  3. They have two seed leaf or cotyledon.

 

Sub-Topic 2:  Difference between monocotyledons & dicotyledons

  Structure Monocot  Features Dicot  Features
1 Root i. Fibrous root system. Tap root system.
2 Stem ii. Single erect stem without branches.

iii. Scattered vascular bundles.

Stem with many branches

Vascular bundles in ring form.

3 Seeds iv. One seed leaf or cotyledon

v. Exhibits hypogeal germination

Two seed leaves or cotyledons.

Exhibits epigeal germination

 

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